How CTR Works

Assisting other sovereign nations to dismantle weapons is an unprecedented enterprise for the United States. Making this program work has required designing an entirely new process both domestically in the United States and in the NIS. The process involves many steps -- obtaining appropriations from Congress, consulting with the NIS on possible projects, notifying Congress of proposed obligations, concluding agreements with the NIS, contracting for goods and services, and delivering the assistance.

Since FY1992, Congress has authorized a total of $1.6 billion in Department of Defense transfer authority and appropriations for CTR assistance. Of that, $330 million has expired. The United States has proposed to obligate $1.181 billion of the $1.27 billion in existing authority.

In accordance with Congressional direction, prior to negotiating any agreement for CTR assistance or obligating any funds, the President (delegated to the Secretary of State) must certify that the recipient nations are making progress toward compliance with criteria outlined in the legislation. In addition, DoD must notify Congress fifteen days in advance of its intent to obligate assistance funds. Negotiations, therefore, take place following Congressional notification, and when DoD is confident that sufficient funding is available to allow for program execution.

Initially, negotiations with the NIS proceeded slowly. The United States and the NIS had to overcome suspicion and the lingering effects of the Cold War while trying to establish common understanding as to the purposes of the U.S. assistance program. Once this impediment to rapid implementation was overcome and the parties worked through the difficult task of determining mutually acceptable technical requirements for goods and services to be provided, the speed of implementation improved.

U.S. Industry and R&D Supporting CTR
U.S. Industry and R&D Supporting CTR

In fact, during the past year the CTR program experienced a dramatic take-off in what we call the "Year of Implementation." In May 1994, the Secretary of Defense directed the establishment of the CTR Program Office within the Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy). The Program Office focuses the attention of a dedicated staff on effective and efficient implementation of CTR's objectives. Today the Program Office is responsible for executing more than 100 individual acquisition actions.

To ensure accountability, most of the CTR assistance is provided by contracting with U.S. companies, universities, and national laboratories. Where most cost effective or responsive to international security needs, DoD occasionally buys goods or services directly in the NIS.

New initiatives during the past year included an effort through which CTR assistance will accelerate, by up to three years, Ukraine's schedule for eliminating SS-19 intercontinental ballistic missiles. This project will directly reduce the number of nuclear-armed missiles capable of threatening the United States. DoD plans to execute the project through an integrating contractor who would be responsible for missile, silo, and base infrastructure elimination. Providing officer housing may also be undertaken by the integrating contractor. A modest U.S. effort to assist with housing is an essential part of Ukraine's and some of the other recipient countries' efforts to reduce or eliminate their strategic nuclear missile arsenals. Providing adequate housing is a legal prerequisite for demobilizing officers in the NIS, and plans for dismantling missiles and closing nuclear bases cannot be fully implemented until nuclear weapons officers are demobilized. This housing would be provided not to improve the NIS officers' quality of life, but to ensure and improve our quality of life by enabling the removal of a threat that has confronted and frightened the American people for nearly four decades.

Since the United States is not the only country providing assistance to the NIS for threat reduction, U.S. CTR efforts are coordinated closely with our allies through the NATO and G-7 forums to eliminate needless duplication and to better meet the needs of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. For instance, Germany is providing assistance to Russia for the conversion of chemical weapons agents not covered by U.S. assistance, and Japan has pledged $100 million of CTR-type assistance to the NIS. Encouraged by U.S. efforts in FY 1994, the NATO and G-7 countries committed $234 million in dismantlement and related assistance to Ukraine. Also several states and international organizations including Sweden and the International Atomic Energy Agency are developing material control and accounting assistance with the NIS.

CTR Team Surveying ICBM Silo Prior to Destruction
CTR Team Surveying ICBM Silo Prior to Destruction

Adding to the trend toward tighter management and implementation of the CTR program, this year we have developed the first CTR multiyear plan. The plan describes a comprehensive program for carrying forward the momentum achieved to date toward reducing the threats associated with weapons of mass destruction in the NIS. This Program Plan contains detailed CTR activities and funding requirements beginning with FY96 and concluding with FY2001, when CTR objectives will be achieved.

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